All the perforating veins of the foot are derived from the
very large medial and lateral plantar veins.
Perforating veins of the medial surface of the foot, are
the most developed (Figure 107). These veins can be divided into three groups, named
in relation to a palpable bony landmark:
• Posterior group
This perimalleolar group comprises a main medial inframalleolar
element (2 to 3 mm), which sometimes receives a perforating
vein of the ankle, above the bimalleolar line, or a posterior
• Median group
This group is situated around the tuberosity of the navicular
bone. Exceptionally, posterior and median groups communicate
via a "seton" perforating vein, which travels underneath
the fascia without any relation to the medial plantar network.
• Anterior group
It projects over the first cuneiform or, more anteriorly,
at the base of the first metatarsal.
Perforating veins of the lateral surface of the foot,
are less developed (Figure
108). Two groups can be distinguished: a posterior, or
calcaneal, group and an anterior, or metatarsal, group.
Finally, like Cockett. Kuster has proposed an extremely precise
topography of these perforating veins, which, to our minds,
does not take into account the extreme variability of their
anatomical location. A classification based on palpable bony
landmarks therefore seems more realistic.
Bourgeret. Circulation locale. Procédé d'injection des veines.
Note présentée à l'Académie des Sciences, 1885.
Gillot V. Veines plantaires et pompe veineuse. Phlébologie 1995, 48:
Lejars F Les veines de la plante du pied. Archives de Physiologie, 1890.
May R., Partsch H., Straudesand R. Venae perforantes. Urban and Schwarzenberg,